Endometrial Biopsy

Endometrium is the lining of the uterus. Endometrium grows its thickness with each menstrual cycle until a mature ovum is released from the ovary. If the fertilization does not occur, the thickened endometrium will break and will leave the body through menstrual bleeding.

Endometrial biopsy is a medical test for diagnosing the presence of abnormal cells in the uterus. In this test, a small sample tissue is collected from the lining of the uterus and then the taken tissue is examined under microscope. It can evaluate the uterine problems like the abnormalities in the uterus and hormonal imbalances that affect the endometrium.

This test is usually conducted just before the start of the menstrual cycle and is usually performed in women over age 35.


The main indications for this test are,

  • Abnormal cells in the endometrium like fibroids.
  • Hormonal balance
  • Prolonged menstrual periods
  • Infection of endometrium such as endometritis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia or overgrowth of the endometrial lining
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Post-menopausal bleeding
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Menstrual bleeding
  • Infertility


  • Pregnant woman should have to avoid endometrial biopsy as it can lead to miscarriage.
  • Patients who are allergic to medications such as iodine or latex should inform their doctor before the procedure.
  • People with clotting disorders need to take blood thinners before test.


After cleaning vagina and cervix, cervix is grasped with a clamp to hold it steady during procedure. Then a small, sterile, flexible plastic tube is gently inserted into the uterine cavity to suction a small sample tissue from the uterus. The procedure is fast and takes only 10 minutes. An electronics suction device or a spray of liquid can also be used to take endometrial tissue. Then the instruments are gently removed and the sample is examined under microscope.


  • Bleeding
  • Acute cervical infection
  • Injury to uterine wall from device
  • Severe lower abdominal pain
  • Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Perforation on the uterus


  • Slight bleeding and mild cramping may occur after biopsy. This is common and there is nothing to worry. Pain relievers for soreness can be used only on the recommendation of your health care provider. Sanitary pads can be used.
  • Avoid sexual intercourse for some days after this procedure.

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