Gynaecologic cancer is group of cancers that affect a woman’s reproductive organs namely the cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina and vulva.
Common Symptoms of Gynaecologic Cancer
Women with the following symptoms should consult a gynaecologic oncologist:
- Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge
- Vaginal bleeding during, after sexual intercourse or inter-menstrual bleeding.
- While discharge in vagina.
- Enlarged lymph nodes/ swelling in the groin.
- Pain or pressure in the pelvic area
- Persistent abdominal swelling or bloating
TYPES OF GYNAECOLOGY CANCER
Cervical cancer is caused by the presence and persistence of the Human Papilloma VIrus (HPV) 16X18, a very common sexually transmitted disease. Cervical cancer usually develops very slowly. It starts as a precancerous condition called dysplasia. This precancerous condition can be detected by a Pap smear test. So it is very important for women to get regular Pap smears. Most women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer today have not had regular Pap smears or they have not followed up on abnormal Pap smear results.
Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in the ovaries. The ovaries are the female productive organs that produce eggs. Ovaries cancers can either be ovarian epithelial carcinomas or malignant germ cell tumors (cancer that begins in egg cells). Ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Many times, women with ovarian cancer have no symptoms or just mild symptoms until the disease is in an advanced stage and hard to treat.
The two forms of uterine cancer are cervical and endometrial. The beginning stage of uterine cancer is called carcinoma in situ. If not detected and treated properly, cancer cells penetrate into deeper layers of the uterus, then spread to neighbouring organs such as the vagina, bladder or rectum and eventually metastasize to other parts of the body. At higher risk or cervical cancer are women who have unusual bleeding or vaginal discharge between periods, and women with poor genital hygiene. The Pap test is highly accurate in detecting cervical cancer at an early stage. It will show cell changes that can develop into cancer. The Pap test takes but a few minutes is painless and can be done in the physician’s office.
Vaginal Cancer is a rare kind of cancer in women. In vaginal cancer, (malignant) cancer cells are found in the issues of the vagina. There are many different types of cancer of the vagina: squamous cell cancer (squamous carcinoma), adenocarcinoma, malignant mela-nomas and sarcomas.
Vulvar cancer is a rare type of cancer. It forms in a women’s external genitals called the vulva. The vulva is a part that includes the inner and outer lips of the vagina, the clitoris (sensitive tissue between the lips), and the opening of the vagina and its glands.