Causes of Male Infertility

There are some factors which are related to infertility in men they are:

Due to poor semen, or abnormal semen (the fluid containing sperm which is ejaculated during sex) there are some possible reasons for low or abnormal semen which are listed below

  • Sperm decreased number-Sperm count meninfertility is low, or no spermat all
  • Sperm mobility decreased- If the mobility of the sperm is low,it will make it harder for the sperm to swim to the egg
  • Sperm Abnormality-Sperm shows abnormal in shape, making it difficult to move towards the egg to be fertilised

There are many cases wherein the reason why there is abnormality of semen which cannot be explained, there are some factors which can affect the sperm.


Testicles: Are responsible for producing and storing the sperm, and if they are damaged, there is a high risk of affecting the quality of the semen, this can happen if the person has had the following reasons:

  • Testicular surgery
  • Testicular cancer
  • Infection of the testicles
  • congenital defect(born with a defect of the testicles)
  • One,or both testicles has not descended into the scrotum
  • Trauma(injury of the testicles)
  • Absence of sperm

Even though your testicles, produce sperm ,it may not reach the semen, and the absence of sperm in your semen is called “obstructive azoospemia”, and the reason this happens,could be due to the blockage in one of the tiny tubes that makes up a man’s reproductive system, which could have been caused by an infection or surgery.


A surgical procedure, known as vasectomy, is done for male sterilisation., which involves cutting and sealing off the vas deferens( the tubes which carry the sperm out of the testicles)so that the semen , will no longer contain any sperm. This kind of procedure for a vasectomy can be reversed, but there is no guarantee.

Ejaculation disorders

There is a problem with some men, who experience ejaculation problems, which can make it difficult for them to ejaculate.

There are some ejaculation problems which include:

  • Retrograde ejaculation , which means that the semen is ejaculated into the bladder
  • Premature ejaculation, which means that the ejaculation occurs too quickly.


This is an abnormality of low testosterone, in males, where the sex hormone, which is involved in making the sperm. This could also be due to a tumour illegal drugs, or even if a male is suffering from “Kallman’s syndrome(a rare disorder caused by a faulty gene)

Medicines and drugs

There are also certain types of medicines, which can cause infertility problems in men, some of the medicines are listed below:

  • Anti-inflammatory medicines, such as Sulfasalazine, which is used to treat Crohn’s disease(inflammation of the intestine) and also rheumatoid arthritis( painful swelling of the joint). This drug can also decrease the number of sperm, but the effect of the drug is only temporary, when the person stop takes the drug the sperm count becomes normal.
  • Steroids, which are anabolic and used illegally to build up muscle in the body,and also improve athletic performance, and also the long term use or abuse of these steroids, can reduce the sperm count and sperm mobility.
  • Chemotherapy_ Medications used in chemotherapy can sometimes, reduce the sperm production
  • Herbal medication/remedies, such as root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii (a Chinese herb),which can effect the production of sperm or even reduce the size of the testicles
  • Alcohol, drinking too much can damage the quality of the sperm, if a person consumes 2-3 units of alcohol , it is said that it will not affect the fertility in men, if a man consumes more than this then it could be difficult


What Causes Fertility Problems in Men?

The most common reasons, for infertility problems with men are:

  • Low sperm count, or too few or no sperm in semen
  • Low sperm motility, of the sperm does not move as well as they should
  • Malformation of the sperm
  • Blocked sperm ducts

There is also another common problem which is temporary drop in sperm production, which happens when the testicles are injured, or if the man has been too hot for too long or the man has been exposed to chemicals, or drugs which affect in sperm production


Excess consumption of alcohol, or smoking can lower sperm count, in men aged 40 and above have lower fertility and it causes male infertility