Fertility problems in Women. What causes them?
There are various reasons which lead to infertility in women:
- It is very important, that the women ovulates, to achieve a successful pregnancy, so that the ovaries produce and release an egg, this process is known as ovulation. With a help of a doctor, you can evaluate, your menstrual cycle and confirm the ovulation
- It is also important that your partner, does not have any medical issues, to rule out the causes of infertility, the doctor can help run some simple testes to evaluate the health of your partners sperm
- It is important that you have regular sexual intercourse during the fertile time, and your doctor can help you to better understand when you are most fertile during the cycle.
- A women needs to have open fallopian tubes, and a normal uterus,the egg and sperm which meet in the fallopian tubes, and the pregnancy, needs to be healthy and have a place to grow
A pregnancy needs to go through to a process, and it needs to be just right, there are certain steps which are as follows:
- Either one or two ovaries to release a mature egg
- The egg travels up to the fallopian tube
- The sperm needs to swim to the cervix, through the uterus, into the fallopian tube to reach the egg for fertilisation
- The fertilised egg, then travels down to the fallopian tube to be uterus
- The fertilised egg ,implants itself and grows in the uterus
There are a number of factors, which can disrupt this process at any step. Female infertility there are various reasons for their cause.
There are some disorders, with regards to ovulation, which is infrequently or not at all, there is about 25% of infertile couples. These disorders, can be caused by flaws in the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or with problems in the ovary itself.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)- In PCOS, do have complex changes, which occur in the hypothalamus,and the pituitary gland and the ovaries, which results in an hormone imbalance, which affects ovulation. This kind of disorder is linked, with insulin, resistance and also obesity, hair growth which is abnormal on the face,or body and acne. This is the most common cause of female infertility.
There are two important hormones which are responsible for stimulating ovulation follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) —which are produced by the pituitary gland in a specific pattern during the menstrual cycle. Excess of physical or emotional stress, which is said to be very high or very low bodyweight, or a recent substantial weight,either gain or loss that can be disrupted this pattern and affects ovulation. The main sign of this dysfunction is the cause of either irregular or absent periods.
Premature ovarian insufficiency
Is a disorder which is considered to be a cause of an autoimmune response,where the body by mistake attacks the ovarian tissues,or by premature loss of eggs from the ovary due to genetic problems or environmental insults, such like chemotherapy. It also results in the loss of the ability to produce eggs by the ovary, and also a decrease in an estrogen production, when the women reaches the age of 40.
Excess of Prolactin
This is when the pituitary’s gland, releases, an excess production of prolactin(hyperprolactinemia),which reduces the estrogen production,which may cause infertility,this is very common due to the problem in the pituitary gland,nevertheless it could be caused due to taking medications for other diseases as well.
Damage to fallopian tubes (tubal infertility)
When the fallopian tubes become damaged, or even blocked, this keeps the sperm from getting to the egg, or even block the passage of the fertilised egg into the uterus.
There are a few causes that cause the fallopian tube to be damaged or block:
- This cause is known as,Pelvic inflammatory disease, this is an infection of the uterus& the fallopian tube,due to chlamydia gonorrhoea, or other sexually transmitted diseases.
- The other reason, could be a previous surgery in the abdomen or the pelvis, or a surgery from ectopic pregnancy, in which the fertilised egg becomes implanted, and starts to grow in the fallopian tube, than in the uterus
Pelvic tuberculosis, is a major cause of tubal infertility, which is not so common
This is a condition, which occurs when the tissue which normally grows in the uterus,but abnormally grows in other locations,, this is an extra tissue growth, which is surgically removed and can cause scarring, which can obstruct the tube and keep the egg,and the sperm from uniting, this condition can also affect the lining of the uterus, disrupting implantation of the fertilised egg. This condition can affect fertility in less-direct ways, and could also damage the sperm or egg.
Uterine or cervical causes
This can impact fertility by interfering, with the implantation or even increasing the likelihood of a miscarriage.
Polyps or tumours, which are benign(fibroids or myomas) which are very common in the uterus,and some types can impair fertility by blocking the fallopian tube, or by even disrupting implantation, however, most women who do have fibroids or polyps can become pregnant.
In the condition, related to endometriosis, which causes scarring or inflammation of the uterus can disrupt implantation.
If there are, any uterine abnormalities which were present from birth, like an abnormal shaped uterus which can cause problems of becoming pregnant or remaining pregnant.
The condition, of cervical stenosis, is when the cervix is narrowed, and this can be caused by the inherited malformation or the damaging of the cervix. In vary rare cases the cervix can’t produce the best type of mucus to allow the sperm to travel through the cervix into the uterus.
Unexplained fertility problems
There are some unexplained fertility problems, the tests that you do are considered to be normal (some infertility experts same it could either be overweight or under weight) exposure to harmful environmental toxins , or too much of exercise , but these do not confirm as possibilities.
- Symptoms : none
- Solutions: Drugs use for fertility IVF/and artificial insemination
- Success rates: Fertility drugs that are used to increase egg production are combined, together with artificial insemination, and the success rate is around 8 and 17 % per cycle. After a period of three years of infertility, the chance to conceive are very slim which is about 20-25% each year.
Combination fertility problems
It is said that couples have “combination” fertility problems when both the man and the woman have fertility trouble, or when one partner has multiple problems.
- Symptoms: That vary depending on the cause and case to case
- Solutions: Treatment used, which vary from case to case and the cause
- Success& rates: Depends on the causes the rates, vary from case to case