A muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach through which the food we eat travel and reach stomach is esophagus. Examination of esophagus may be necessitated to find out the nature of the tumor that is growing in the esophagus or for finding out the location and other details of foreign objects that got stuck in esophagus. Examination of esophagus is known as easophagoscopy. Examination of esophagus is done using a thin instrument called esophagoscope.

Examination of esophagus using esophagoscope is done through a minimally invasive procedure. This procedure is done without any incision as the esophagoscope can be inserted to the esophagus through mouth or nose. There are generally three types of esophagoscopic procedures for performing the examination of the esophagus. They are rigid esophagoscopy, flexible esophagoscopy and transanal flexible esophagoscopy.

Rigid esophagoscopy: In this procedure a rigid esophagoscope is inserted through the mouth. The esophagoscope reaches the esophagus through throat.

Flexible esophagoscopy: In this procedure a flexible esophagoscope is inserted into the esophagus through the mouth. The esophagoscope reaches the esophagus through throat.

Trasnasal esophagoscopy: In this procedure a thin flexible esophagoscope is inserted into the esophagus through nose. It reaches the esophagus through throat.

While easophagoscopy is progressing your doctor may suggest some additional procedures to be conducted to find out or treat the existence of certain conditions in the patient. They are botulinum toxin injection, chromoendoscopy, dilation of the esophagus, endoscopic injection therapy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), fluorescence spectroscopy, foreign body removal, photodynamic therapy, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), tissue biopsy, variceal ligation etc.

1) Botulinum toxin injection: This injection is given to the esophagus sphincter in the lower part to relieve the difficulty experienced in swallowing due to hyper tension in the lower sphincter.

2) Chromoendoscopy: In this procedure a suitable dye is sprayed into the esophagus so that the abnormal tissues in the esophagus are highlighted in the diagnostics scans.

3) Dilation of the esophagus: If the esophagus has become very narrow your doctor may suggest the dilation of the esophagus to make the easophagoscopy easier and successful.

4) Endoscopic injection therapy: if the esophagus contains enlarged veins with a risk of bleeding, your surgeon may suggest medication for the shrinkage of enlarged varices.

5) Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR): Your surgeon may suggest the removal of lesions in Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal cancer.

6) Fluorescence spectroscopy: This is a procedure used for identifying the cancerous esophageal tissues.

7) Foreign body removal: Your surgeon may suggest the removal of foreign body, if any, found in the esophageal tract.

8) Photodynamic therapy: Esophageal cancer treated by a laser beam sent through an esophagoscope is known as photodynamic therapy.

9) Radiofrequency ablation (RFA): This is a procedure in which heat is used for destroying cancerous cells in the Barrett’s esophagus.

10) Tissue biopsy: During easophagoscopy your surgeon may order to take specimens of the abnormal tissues for biopsy purpose.

11) Variceal ligation: During esophagoscopy your surgeon may order the ligation of varices by tying them with bands.