Female anatomy of the genitalia: In general, the external genetalia of females is referred to as vulvo-vaginal complex. They constitute the labia majora, the labia minora, the urethra, the vagina, and the clitoris. In most of the women, the labia appears large on one or both side. It is often seen that one or both lips of labia minora gets elongated and projects out of the labia majora. This provides a dull feeling to them and makes a source of embarrassment with their sexual partner. As a result, the self-esteem of the individual is lost. Labia can enlarge naturally or occur due to several reasons such as age, hormones, childbirth, and sexual intercourse. Besides effecting the self-esteem, large labia can cause chronic infection and irritation in the genital areas.

Baically, labiaplasty is performed on the inner lips, skin covering the clitoris and the vaginal opening, as Labia Minora surgery. It tends to reduce or reshape the external vagina appearance. They help to restore the labia to their normal cosmetic status by normalizing it in size and symmetry on both the sides. There exists various grounds for choosing women labioplasty. The most significant reasons include boosting the vaginal appearance of a woman, increasing the sexual pleasure, reducing pain during sexual intercourse, decreasing physical and emotional discomfort caused due to labia enlargement, enhancing self-esteem. Labiaplasty (also known as labioplasty) is also considered as an alternative for correcting labial hypertrophy. The corrections included in labiaplasty are Mullerian agenesis (malformation of uterus and fallopian tubes), vaginal atresia (absence of vaginal passage) or intersex conditions (male and female sexual characteristics in one person). Vagina or hymen is not harmed by labiaplasty surgery.

Vulvar vestibular papillomatosis is considered to be an anatomical variant of the vulva. It is referred to as an uncommon benign condition. In some patients, this condition is mistaken to be as warts. However, the main distinct part is the absence of koilocytes in vulvar papilomatosis and the presence of finger-like loosely arranged projections of subdermal tissue, which are covered with normal mucosal epithelium and comprises of blood vessels. Vestibular papilomatosis is not caused by human papilomavirus (HPV) infection. But evidence indicating a major role of HPV infection in individual cases of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and vulvar papillomatosis is still not clear.

In labiaplasty, the surgeon removes the top epithelium of labia and a wedge shaped section, while holding back the underlying tissue intact. This is done to cut down the excess tissue. Labia Majora is also suitable for undergoing labiaplasty. Liposuction is highly recommended to reduce the appearance of the outer lips. In more extreme cases, the genital outer lips are surgically trimmed. For sculpting unequal or elongated labial minora and achieving an enhanced labia appearance, laser reduction labiaplasty is the best option. Bleeding can be reduced using lasers. In augmentation labiaplasty, fat is harvested from other body parts and re-injected into the labia, providing a youthful and enhanced vaginal appearance. Permanent results are obtained from labiaplasty. However, through sexual activity and future childbirth, labia can enlarge.

Some level of risks and complications such as infection and scarring, are persuaded by all forms of plastic surgery. Some of the risks specific to labiaplasty are changes in pigmentation, changes in sensation , or asymmetry. Prior to labiaplasty, it is important for the patient to get awareness about both benefits and risks of the surgery. Pain killers can be used to reduce mild to moderate pain and discomfort. It may take few weeks for swelling to subside. 

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