Conditions and Diseases affecting hand wrist and forearm

About Hand, wrist and forearm

Hand, wrist and forearm are made up of large number of bones both small and large which are connected by tendons and muscles. They often get injured due to many reasons. 10 % of the causality room visits are accounted for the hand injuries. The lower arm consists of two bones radius and ulna. These two bones meet the hand which is made up of 27 smaller bones to form the wrist.   Median and ulnar nerves passing through the hands and muscles flexor and extensor together with the support of many other nerves and tendons provide hands movement, sensation and strength. When Hand, wrist and forearm get injured getting proper treatment is highly essential for quick relief of pain other inconveniences.

hand wrist and forearm diagram

Important conditions which affect Hand, wrist and forearm are explained below

Broken  arms

Hand bones usually break due to trauma caused in an accident or due to falling. It is marked by a cracking sound at the time of trauma. It takes many weeks to get the broken arms healed. Surgery is not necessitated in many cases.

Carpel tunnel syndrome

Compression of median nerve near the wrist is the cause for carpel tunnel syndrome. Tingling in the hand and numbness at night are the usual symptoms of this condition. Medication and splinting are the traditional methods of treatments.  If they are not yielding any positive results carpel tunnel surgery has to be resorted for.

Elbow fractures 

Breaking may occur at the tip of the elbow due to direct impact. This breaking is also known as olecranon. This extremely painful situation can be overcome by using a sling or through surgical methods.

Elbow Bursitis

If the bursa in the elbow is inflamed due to infection or pressure it will be very difficult for the skin to move over the elbow bone. If medication proves futile surgical remedies will have to be resorted to.

Kids forearm fracture

A child’s broken forearm appears like a bent arm and it will be extremely painful. A sling or cast will be enough for joining the broken arms.

Hand fracture

Hand fracture include breaking of small bones of hands known as metacarpals and phalanges. Cast, flint or brace are usually enough for healing. Stabilizing surgery will be necessary when the above methods are not viable.

Ganglion cyst

Fluid filled cysts on the writs or hands are formed as a result of irritation in the joint linings or tendon sheaths.

Radial head fracture

This refers to the fracture in the radial bone in the forearm. Surgery may be necessitated depending upon the degree and type of the fracture.

Tennis elbow

Over use of elbow may result in lessened ability to grip and a painful sensation in the elbow. Rest, wearing a grip, medication etc have been found to be useful in relieving the symptoms.  In some cases surgical remedy has to be sought for.

Trigger finger

The flexor tendon may get pinched by an irritated sheath covering the tendon resulting in a locking sensation. Non surgical methods can cure this condition. However surgical remedies can be resort to in severe cases.

Wrist fracture

The larger of the forearm bones, radius may break due to trauma or accidents. If cast does not yield results, then surgical methods can be made use of.


Swelling or pain caused in the wrists due to arthritis limiting movement and strength of the bones makes it impossible to perform many normal tasks. When non surgical options fail surgical options may be resorted for.

Ulnar nerve entrapment

The ulnar nerve which is one of the three main nerves in the hand may get compressed and entrapped behind the elbow. This can be treated by anti inflammatory medicines and steroid injections. If they fail surgical remedies are available.