An abnormal response to wound healing is referred to as Keloids. They are often distinguished by collagen overproduction. A keloid is a scar type, which is made of either type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. At the site of a healed skin injury, the overgrown granulation tissue (collagen type 3) is replaced with collagen type I. Keloids can either be rubbery lesions or shiny firm or fibrous nodules. The colour of keloid usually varies from pink to dark brown. Although a keloid scar is not contagious, but in some cases severe pain and itchiness and texture change is noticed. Both men and women are equally affected. However, in women as the ear piercing rate is higher, thus the incidence of ear keloid is also greater. Any place where an abrasion has occurred, is prone to keloid development. The reasons may be pimples, burns, insect bites, scratching, body piercing, and skin trauma or post-surgery. Some sites in the body, such as the earlobes, central chest, arms, the back and shoulders, and over the collar bone. They are rarely seen to develop on the face. The cellular signals which are responsible for controlling growth and proliferation, may get affected during keloid formation. To get rid of a keloid already formed in the body, the individual is recommended to avoid any elective surgery or piercing, mainly in scarring prone body parts.
A hypertrophic scar is a type of skin condition where a raised scar is formed due to the excessive amount of collagen. However, the degree of severity is less compared to keloids.
Prevention is the best treatment recommended to patients with known predisposition. Avoiding ear piercing helps to completely nullify ear keloid scarring. It is important to treat any persisting skin problem in a predisposed individual for minimizing areas of inflammation. Scapel excision method, alone, to remove keloid is not regarded to be effective as it may cause recurrences. An excision procedure to remove keloid scar should be done in conjunction with pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative triamcinolone or interferon injections. The surgical removal of keloid may result in the formation of larger keloid scars. If proper precautions and post-op treatment is taken, then the recurrence of keloid on ear lobes is minimized.
In most cases, the first-line treatment for keloid scar is chosen to be intralesional corticosteroids. In order to reduce redness, itching and burning associated with keloid scar, often injectable steroid medication is used in the scar tissue. Sometimes, the scar may get shrunk.
Laser is preferred to remove acne scars formed at the site of an injury. They are the visible indicators of injury and tissue repair. The water present in your skin cells, absorbs the laser light. As a result, the cell is either completely destructed or vaporized.
Compared to the conventional surgical method, keloid can be easily removed with laser surgical excision method. The entire keloid mass is excised by using Co2 laser, followed by kenacort injection. Radiotherapy follows this procedure. The pain and itching induced by the keloids can be well treated with gel sheeting employing hydrogel and silicone scar sheets. They are also useful in managing the evolved keloids and preventing at the sites of new injuries. Combined with other keloid treatments, the most useful is the cryosurgery. Keloid scarring can be corrected by using pulsed dye laser treatment procedures.
Depending upon the type of scar, the effort, the duration of treatments and the experience of the surgeon, there exists a wide variation in the cost of the scar removal. ¬†
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